Dictionary Credits

Passamaquoddy and Maliseet Speakers

The men and women who worked with Margaret Apt, including those whose contributions come from recordings and writings, and from the memories of contemporary speakers, are listed below. The initials shown are those used in the dictionary entries to indicate the source of example sentences. The authors have made every effort to acknowledge the source of the example sentences in the dictionary entries, where possible. Examples credited to Lewis Mitchell (LM, 1847–1930) are taken from his stories, as published in John Dyneley Prince's "Passamaquoddy Texts" (1921), and as edited by David A. Francis.

Passamaquoddy Contributors at Pleasant Point

Frances Allen (FA)
Rita Altvater (RA)
Margaret Apt (MA)
Frank Atwin
Joan Barnes (JB)
Lester Bassett (LB)
Mary Bassett (MB)
Shirley Cogswell (SC)
Mary Creighton (MC)
Andrea Dana (AnD)
Brenda Dana Lozada (BDL)
Donnell Dana (DD)
Jeff Dana (JeD)
Joyce Doten (JD)
Cyril Francis (CF)
David A. Francis (DAF)
Deanna Francis (DF)
Marian Francis (MNF)
Melvin Francis (MF)
Mitchell Francis
Ralph Francis (RF)
Bernice Greeley (BG)
John Holmes (JH)
John P. Homan (JPH)
Hilda Lewis (HSL)
Horace Lola (HL)
Edwina Mitchell (EM)
Lewis Mitchell (LM)
Andrew Moore (AndM)
Antoinette Moore (AM)
Fred Moore (FM)

Raymond Moore, Sr. (RM)
Jimmy Neptune (JN)
Noel Neptune (NN)
Adelaide Newell (ASN)
Annette Newell (AN)
Roland Newell (RN)
Rose Newell (RoN)
Susan Newell (SN)
Frances Nicholas (FN)
Joseph A. Nicholas (JAN)
Lane Nicholas (LN)
Fredda Paul (FP)
Gracie Paul (GP)
Margaret Paul (MaP)
Sandy Paul (SP)
Clara Polches (CP)
Roberta Richter (RR)
Grace Roderick (GR)
Frances Smith (FS)
David Sockabasin (DaS)
Dick Sockabasin (DS)
Russell Socoby (RS)
Madonna Soctomah (MS)
Elizabeth Sopiel (ES)
Helen Stanley (HS)
Reggie Stanley (ReS)
Seraphine Stevens (SS)
Christina Taylor (CT)
Mary Lou Tomah (MLT)
Newell Tomah (NT)
Mary Yarmal (MY)

Passamaquoddy Contributors at Indian Township

Albert Dana (AD)
Irene Dana (ID)
Mary Mae Larrabee (MML)
Elizabeth Newell (EN)
Wayne A. Newell (WN)
Roger Paul (RP)
Blanche Sockabasin (BS)
Lola Sockabasin (LS)
Patricia Nicholas Sockabasin (PN)
Raphael Sockabasin (RaphS)
Mary Ellen Stevens (Socobasin) (MES)
Donald G. Soctomah (DGS)
George “Big John” Soctomah
John Stevens (JS)
Frank Tomah (FT)

Maliseet Contributors

Roseanne Clark (RC)
Raymond Nicholas (RaN)
Imelda Perley (IP)
Mae Perley (MP)
Mildred Paul (MiP)
Peter Lewis Paul recorded by Lloyd Leland (PP/LL)
Walter Joe Paul recorded by Lloyd Leland (WP/LL)
John Sacobie recorded by Lloyd Leland (JS/LL)
Christine Saulis (CS)
Doris Tremblay (DT)
(see also Tales from Maliseet Country, below)

Linguist Janet Warne collected words from Peter Paul, Simon Paul, and Oliver Polchies, which were subsequently recorded by Lloyd Leland (JW/LL)

Editorial Committee (Passamaquoddy)

Joan Barnes
Shirley Cogswell
John Holmes
John P. Homan
Wayne A. Newell
Joseph A. Nicholas
Roger Paul
Mary Yarmal

Maliseet and Passamaquoddy Contributors to Kolusuwakonol

Kolusuwakonol, an earlier version of the dictionary (Micmac-Maliseet Institute, 1984), was developed by Philip S. LeSourd (PSL). Those speakers who contributed to this dictionary in the 1970s were acknowledged as a group in the 1984 publication, rather than by name in individual entries; the symbol * indicates those who also contributed to the present dictionary or to Tales from Maliseet Country

Veronica Atwin
Audrey Cote
*Albert Dana
Charles Dana
Colleen Dana
Philomene Dana
Vickey Dana
*David A. Francis
Lorraine Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
Simon Gabriel
Albert Harnois
Anna Harnois
Estelle Neptune
*Wayne A. Newell
*Joseph A. Nicholas
*Peter Lewis Paul
*Clara Polches
George Sockabasin
*Mary Ellen Stevens (Socobasin)
Eleanor Socoby
Aloysius Sopiel
Beverly Sopiel
Maxine Tomah

Contributors to Tales from Maliseet Country

All excerpts from these tales (recorded in 1963 by Karl V. Teeter) are identified in the entries using the attribution MT, for “Maliseet Tales.” The sentences in dictionary entries were taken from an early pre-publication draft and reviewed by David A. Francis. Consequently they may differ from those found in the published edition (edited by Philip S. LeSourd, University of Nebraska Press, 2007). Any errors or omissions are the dictionary authors’ responsibility. The Maliseet storytellers recorded by Karl V. Teeter were the following, all credited as (MT).

Charles Laporte
Lawrence Paul
Peter Lewis Paul
Solomon Polchies
Alexander Sacobie
Mathilda Sappier
William Saulis
Madeline Tomah

Audio Recorders at Pleasant Point and Indian Township

The following people have recorded dictionary entries as part of the Passamaquoddy Language Preservation Project.

Margaret Apt
Donnell Dana
Plansowes Dana
Pqiptes Dana
Brenda Dana Lozada
Barbara Dore
Alberta Francis
David Francis
Donald Francis
Scott Francis
Stephanie Francis
Susan Newell
Wayne Newell
Gracie Paul
Roger Paul
Donald Soctomah
Madonna Soctomah
Nancy Soctomah
Alice Claire Tomah
Dwayne Tomah

Additional Sources

A number of entries and example phrases have been found in the Passamaquoddy folder of Albert S. Gatschet, found in the archives of the Canadian Museum of History (Box: 131, f3), dated 1896. The introductory pages list various Passamaquoddy and Maliseet speakers in Maine and New Brunswick, and attribution of a word or phrase to a particular speaker is not always clear. These entries and examples are listed as having come from the notes of Gatschet (AG).

Entries and example phrases have also been taken from the Malecite-Passamaquoddy Dictionary compiled by John Dyneley Prince and consisting of words collected from Lewis Mitchell, of Pleasant Point (American Philosophical Society, Frank G. Speck Papers, Mss.Ms.Coll.126, 1921). These entries and examples are credited to Lewis Mitchell (LM).