General Credits

Many people contributed indispensably to the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal as it evolved from the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet online dictionary to include Language Keepers and Speaking Place documentation projects.

The Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary

David A. Francis, Robert M. Leavitt, and Margaret Apt are the authors of the print and online versions of the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary. The dictionary has been published in book form as Peskotomuhkati Wolastoqewi Latuwewakon: A Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary (Orono, University of Maine Press; Fredericton, Goose Lane Editions, 2008). Stephen Sloan created the original online dictionary website at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton. (Please see Dictionary Credits for all contributors.)

PLEASE NOTE: The Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal contains the most up-to-date versions of dictionary entries, including corrections and additional information; online entries may differ from those found in the print edition. New entries are added regularly to the Portal.

The Passamaquoddy Language Preservation Project

The audio module portion of the Portal is sponsored by a grant awarded by the Administration for Native Americans (ANA) to the Passamaquoddy Tribal Historic Preservation Office to promote and preserve the tribal language. Donald Soctomah, Director. The ANA was established in 1974 through the Native American Programs Act (NAPA). The ANA project has been adding audio recordings of the entry words and example sentences since 2011. (Please see Dictionary Credits for a list of audio recorders.)

Language Keepers / Speaking Place

Ben Levine, documentary filmmaker and Robert Leavitt, educator/linguist, developed the approach to documenting natural group conversation with video. Julia Schulz developed the facilitator training and supervised the editing. David Weiss developed the archival strategies. (Please see Language Keepers Credits for all contributors.)

Northeast Historic Film was the fiscal sponsor and continues to be the video archive repository. The United States Library of Congress is the long-term archive at the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIPP).

The National Science Foundation Program Officers were Joan Maling, Susan Penfield, and Douglas Whalen.

The Portal (video-dictionary dual database concept and design) was developed by Robert Leavitt and Ben Levine.

  • Portal design, functionality, and hosting by UNB Libraries', University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada; Jacob Sanford and Jeremy McDermott, developers (Please see Portal Credits for additional contributors.)
  • Passamaquoddy Advisors: Wayne Newell, Margaret Apt, Brenda Lozada, Donald Soctomah
  • Educational Advisors: Julia Schulz and David Weiss
  • Prototype software engineering by PenBay Media, Camden, Maine
  • Some portal design elements and functions were originally developed and tested by Ian Larson and Sam Hunting at the University of Maine, New Media Program. Gail Dana-Sacco was the Passamaquoddy advisor.

Opening Portal Art Work: "We Are Still Dancing" by Stephanie Francis. The image is taken from a collection of petroglyphs—one of the oldest existing forms of graphic Passamaquoddy communication. It was created by Stephanie Francis and printed on sweetgrass and hemp paper made by Bernie Vinzani with help from Donald and Dakota Soctomah, Patty Vinzani, and Michelle Amato.

Funding for the dictionary, Language Keepers, and the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal was provided by the National Science Foundation. These publications are based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 9601540, 0001949, 0553791, and 0853658. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

"Word-building: Understanding Passamaquoddy Words" is a 2020 project produced by Speaking Place, with a grant from the Davis Family Foundation. From an original idea by Ben Levine in the 2009 documentary “Language of America.” Daniel Quintanilla, design, animation, and video editing; Margaret Apt and Brenda Dana Lozada, voice-over narration; Julia Schulz, project director; Robert M. Leavitt, project linguist. Jacob Sanford and Jeff Carter, University of New Brunswick, programmers for the Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal. Project advisors: Margaret Apt, Brenda Dana Lozada, Lynn Mitchell, Donald Soctomah, Ben Levine, Philip LeSourd, and Norvin Richards.